According to Adam Smith’s book Wealth of Nations, India and China were considered to be the most agriculturally favorable countries in the world and through excess production could become the world’s largest economy before Europe. According to Nobel laureate economist Amartya Sen, India’s development two thousand years ago contributed 30 percent of the world’s growth rate. It is clear from all these things that geographically India is considered to be the most fertile country in the agricultural sector.
We will try to know the reality of what is Green Revolution in India and what are its results from British India till date. In British India, the British completely changed the agricultural sector of India and started implementing their economy in the subsistence production agriculture sector. The result of this was that after India’s independence, India could not become self-sufficient in food matters and for this it depended on imports.
We will try to find out what was the background of taking the decision of Green Revolution and what results were seen in the agriculture sector and during Liberalization again we had to make changes in it through personal reasons. If we look at today’s situation, the maximum employment is available in the agriculture sector, but its share in the Indian economy is very less. That’s why it is necessary to bring about a third revolution in the agriculture sector, but in view of the opposition to the agriculture law, it is going to be a very difficult task for the government to do this.
History of Green Revolution –
India’s population was increasing very fast and food production was not happening accordingly. As a result of this, the result of starvation and unbalanced production was seen in the whole country. On the other hand, after the Second World War, communism and capitalism struggle started, in view of which America started giving basic food grains like wheat to India which was a political move and threatened to stop this service during Pakistan war. Taking a lesson from this, Lal Bahadur Shastri’s government decided to bring changes in the agriculture sector.
Industrial revolution and scientific changes completely changed the way of life of human society. The maximum results of which we got to see in Europe and America. We get to see the beginning of the Green Revolution first from Mexico, which was very successful, in which an attempt was made to increase production by using chemical methods and by creating varieties instead of seeds.
India’s population and food production was making a huge difference in it, which had become a matter of concern. American agricultural reformers like Norman Borlaug did this amendment through the Rockefeller Foundation for this. It was most successfully used in Mexico and India and ended the problem of India. For this, critics believe that this technique has less advantages and more disadvantages, which we will analyze further.
Green Revolution in India –
The decade of the 1960s was full of ups and downs for India, in which the war with China and Pakistan and the situation of famine on the other hand, caused the economy of India to be trapped in a double crisis. It is not that agricultural production in India was not doing well, but since America started giving extra secondary wheat to India. Due to this, leaving its production, farmers started focusing on other production.
Due to which the whole system of production changed and suddenly America started threatening to stop this export altogether. This caused the Government of India to take concrete decisions and this is the reason why an important decision of Green Revolution was taken, for which this policy was set under the guidance of Norman Borlaug of America, behind which there have been many political reasons. Due to this, the government got a lot of success in ending India’s hunger problem and increased the production of products like wheat and rice in large quantities.
Hybrid seed species and chemical farming have been an important component of this policy and with this, modern tools like tractors started being used in the agriculture sector. States like Punjab and Haryana took advantage of this Green Revolution the most because they were already the most prosperous states in India for agricultural environment. Under this scheme, the government provided basic prices for wheat and rice, which greatly benefited the farmers of Punjab and Haryana. Other states also started taking production of wheat and rice in large quantities but they could not compete with these states.
Norman Borlaug and Green Revolution –
Norman Borlaug was an American citizen and was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1970 for his special achievement of the Green Revolution. He was an agricultural scientist and the whole world gave him the title of “Father of Green Revolution” in the agriculture sector. Norman Borlaug made many modifications to increase production in the agricultural sector to end world hunger at the grassroots level, which resulted in his first successful experiment in Mexico, seeing which he was invited to India.
Norman Borlaug earned his PhD in plant biology and forestry at the University of Minnesota in 1942, and went on to work as a scientist for the Duepoint Company. Later on, he began making modifications to increase the wheat production capacity for the Rockefeller Foundation. He first selected Mexico for this modification and successfully increased production.
Norman Borlaug developed the highest yielding wheat variety at the Campo atizapan research center, earlier the wheat variety used to break due to the large size, but the developed variety used to grow smaller but gave more production. This was the most important achievement of the Green Revolution, in which this small species was able to produce in large quantities by the use of chemical fertilizers. Norman Borlaug’s help was taken to do the same experiment in India and the Green Revolution was made successful.
Importance of Green Revolution in India –
Millions of people died of starvation in Bengal during World War II in British India, which showed how difficult it was to depend on exports. The policy that was made in British India was made keeping in view the interest of the British, in which the agricultural policy was made according to the raw material that the British used to produce. In the first two five-year plans after India’s independence, priority was given to developing industrialization rather than strengthening the agricultural sector.
As a result of which increase in population and non-creation of production for the food security of its equal people, it was inviting the crisis of starvation. It is not that agricultural production was not happening without Green Revolution, but the production which should have been more was not happening and other production was happening in large quantity. That’s why the Government of India felt the need to make a properly planned agriculture policy.
Northern states like Punjab, Haryana took the most important part in this Green Revolution and the farmers of these states also got more benefit from it. By getting basic price for wheat and rice, these farmers got security to produce. Other states tried to copy the model of Punjab and Haryana but they did not succeed in it. Due to the favorable natural conditions in the state of Punjab and Haryana, he could succeed in this.
India’s Liberal Policy and Green Revolution –
After successfully completing the first round of Green Revolution, in the economic crisis after 1990, the Government of India decided to make changes in its economic policy as directed by the World Bank. This period was the second phase of the Green Revolution, in which changes are seen in the agriculture sector through the private sector. In the first phase, an attempt was made by the government to end zamindari, but in the second phase, a policy was made to make agricultural production based on demand and supply by opening the market.
India is already cultivated in a traditional way, in which according to Adam Smith, there was never an attempt to trade surplus production in India, otherwise India could have become a world superpower in the 15th century. But there was no system in India’s agricultural system to take production according to its needs. Therefore it did not develop even though more than 70 percent of the economic output was based on agriculture. After the Green Revolution, the cost of production started increasing, and in the open economy, the prices of electricity and seeds started depending on the fluctuations of the market.
The agriculture sector was not previously seen from a commercial point of view, so no training or tradition was created in the Indian society about how it should be planned while doing farming. As a result of which farmers’ suicide, this issue has increased the most after the second green revolution. It was difficult for the common farmers to compete with them from the agricultural sector of the corporate sector. That’s why this second phase of Green Revolution is considered to be the worst time for the farmers.
Intellectual Property Law and Green Revolution –
At the second stage of Green Revolution, through privatization, laws like intellectual property were made and seeds used for production through patents were registered as private property, as a result of which the common farmer has to compete in front of corporate companies. can not do.
The intellectual property which should be used in the interest of the society, started being used for the purpose of making profit, but some positive results are also seen. Due to which the society starts producing good seeds which is the advantage of the market competition. Achieving the objective of food security due to the policy of intellectual property seems to be a very difficult task which the government has to complete in a balanced manner.
With the coming of the corporate sector into the agriculture sector and the dependence of all commodity prices on the market, it becomes very difficult for ordinary farmers to compete with the corporate sector. In the second phase, the farmers got to see the results of the Green Revolution, this is the reason that in 2020, the Government of India had brought the agricultural laws, it failed to gain the trust of the farmers.
Agriculture Law 2020 and Controversies –
The states of Punjab and Haryana played the most important role in the Green Revolution and completed India’s food security. Due to chemical farming, water pollution and the consequences on the fertile capacity of the land, these farmers had to bear the cost. After 1990, in the second phase of the Green Revolution, farmers had suffered a lot through privatization and farming had become a harmful activity, mainly due to this experience, the farmers of these two states strongly opposed the agricultural law of the government. .
This was the result of the changed policy of 1990 to open the market through privatization in the agricultural sector. As long as there was privatization of government companies and banks, there was no result of this on the people. But when the privatization policy started making changes in the agriculture sector, everyone knew its consequences. He knows that even the farmers of Punjab and Haryana cannot stand in front of the big corporate companies and being the richest farmer of India, he was able to carry on this movement for a long time.
Taking the government into confidence, these farmers have to understand how important the agriculture law is, for which if some changes are to be made, they should be done with consent. If only the capitalist class is benefiting from privatization, then by balancing it farmers will have to be convinced and they will have to be developed. We have to see that international pressure and politics should not harm the country or the farmers of the country.
Benefits of Green Revolution –
- The most important advantage of the Green Revolution is that after 1960, the production of wheat has increased seven times in the next ten years and by the year 2000 it has become completely self-sufficient.
- Due to the weakness of the system of planned production in the agriculture sector, before 1960, famine had to be faced again and again and the lives of lakhs of people were at stake only due to starvation, it stopped.
- In British India, the production which was taken in the interest of the British government, the same tradition was seen till 1960, it stopped and the production needed by the country has been implemented through MSP by the government.
- The farmers who were becoming economically weak before 1960, started becoming economically capable, in this the farmers of Punjab and Haryana got the maximum benefit.
- Before the Green Revolution, we had to depend completely on the rectangle of food products, that stopped.
- Due to the Green Revolution, modern things like tractors, electricity and motors started being used in agriculture, due to which less laborers started working with more capacity.
- Industrialization was established in India before this and it also needed some base which was due to the demand in the agriculture sector and due to both the sectors India’s economic system benefited unilaterally.
- Despite the use of machines in the agricultural sector, due to the farmers being financially capable, a large amount of employment was created in areas like Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Punjab and Haryana, which started farming due to the increase in chemical fertilizers and other work.
Disadvantages of Green Revolution –
- The Green Revolution helped in increasing the production of wheat and rice, but the use of chemical fertilizers took a toll on the production capacity of the land.
- Before the Green Revolution, fertilizers used for farming were available naturally, which had to be bought, which increased the cost of production.
- Due to lack of proper training as to how much chemical fertilizers should be used, it got mixed in the water of the ground and rivers, the consequences of which were very dangerous, which a state like Punjab has suffered.
- With the entry of privatization in the agricultural sector along with the Green Revolution, the farmers got a competitor who was much more powerful than them.
- Only Punjab and Haryana got the maximum benefit of Green Revolution, the rest of the states did not benefit from it, due to this there is a lot of economic difference between the farmers of other states and the farmers of Punjab and Haryana.
- Seeds were created that could be used only once, before that the seeds of natural methods could be used many times.
- Due to increase in additional expenditure of farmers for things like seeds, fertilizers, production cost increased but only wheat and rice got security for production and rest of the production was insecure.
Features of Green Revolution –
- Green Revolution was started in India with the help of Norman Borlaug who was an American scientist.
- Communism did not affect India, so as a strategy, this campaign was launched with the help of United Nations for food security in India.
- Chemical fertilizers, fertilizers and modern machinery were used in the Green Revolution.
- Such seeds were used which could give many times more production than normal seeds and such seeds were prepared whose height was low and it could bear the weight of the upper part to be constructed.
- Due to chemical fertilizers, the production got security and the risk which used to remain in farming was done.
The Green Revolution was mainly implemented in two phases, in which the second phase was implemented during the liberalism of 1990.
- The farmers of Punjab and Haryana benefited the most from the Green Revolution because they developed more due to the geographical conditions being favorable for farming from the beginning and getting government security production.
- In the third phase, the Green Revolution was started by making agricultural laws in 2020, but due to a lot of opposition from the farmers, the Government of India had to withdraw these laws.
In this way we saw that food security was the established reason due to Green Revolution and through this important production like wheat and rice were done in large quantities in India. Some good results were seen like the Green Revolution, whereas due to the use of chemical process in the agriculture sector, very bad results were seen. Its results are most visible in a state like Punjab. This chemical can be seen in the water of Punjab.
Norman Borlaug who was a Nobel Prize winning agricultural scientist who through his amendment made Mexico and India successful by making policies to determine food security. Its adverse effects were seen later, but India was successful in ending the main problem of food security. In the second phase, we got to see the Green Revolution in 1990, which started implementing the policy of privatization in the agriculture sector from time to time.
In the third phase, we got to see 2020 through the Green Revolution Agriculture Act, whose protest lasted for many days and the government had to withdraw these reforms under compulsion. The important reason for this was the economic loss caused to the farmers through privatization in the second phase of Green Revolution and it became difficult to do farming, hence this protest was seen. That’s why the reforms of the government may be in the interest of the farmers, but the government failed to gain confidence in them.